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All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1950 item #383422 (stock #BA473)
Stonegate Antiques
$225.00
An unusual piece, this delightful, cloth Mammy Broom Doll from the 1940's measures 12.5 inches high with a total height of 31 inches including the broom.

Mammy's wonderful, smiling face is all hand-stitched while her clothes are machine sewn. Her blouse is striped cotton, as are Mammy's head, arms, skirt, apron, and cap. Her head, arms, and upper torso have been stuffed with cotton batting. The natural bristle broom fills out both Mammy's torso and skirt & the wooden broom handle extends upward through her neck and head.

Mammy is in all original condition with no mends or repairs. The structural integrity of the broom remains quite sound. Mammy's white cotton apron and cap have been professionally cleaned, removing nearly all traces of old stains, dirt, and dust.

A fabulous piece of vintage Black Americana, and a seldom seen form of the Black Mammy Doll!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1960 item #861176 (stock #BA316)
Stonegate Antiques
$65.00
Offered are a group of eleven, Black Memorabilia postcards in wonderful, unused condition of 1930's through 1950's vintage, priced at $65.00 all 11.

While some photos may appear a bit blurry, this is a function of photography and not condition. All postcards are crisp and clear! The six comical cartoon postcards are much more brightly and vividly colored than the photos depict. The four photo postcards also feature titles describing their subjects.

A delightful grouping that would be much-appreciated framed!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1950 item #674205 (stock #BA654)
Stonegate Antiques
$225.00
Measuring approximately 5.25 inches in length, this wonderful, ceramic, Wide-Smiling Mammy Wall Pocket was made in Japan, circa 1940-50's.

Coloring is quite brilliant, and the condition is very fine with appropriate age-related crazing and some tiny, circular, firing imperfections on Mammy's polka dotted scarf as noted in photos. Please note that white marks are flash reflections, not imperfections. Makers mark is noted on the back--- an "E" inside of a crown.

A delightful piece of Black Memorabilia that displays wonderfully on a wall or shelf!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1940 item #1273736 (stock #BA874BA919)
Stonegate Antiques
$245.00
Measuring 9 inches high, these delightful examples of Folk Art styling, are two of a series of Black cloth character dolls made in Alabama in the 1930’s by unknown craftsmen/women.

It has been noted that their creation was encouraged through President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Depression era program, the Work Projects Administration (WPA), in existence from 1935-1943. The WPA was designed to provide jobs across the country during the Great Depression. While most jobs were in construction and infrastructure, the most well-known project arm of the WPA, known as Federal Project Number One, employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in arts, drama, media, and literacy projects. The five projects assigned to this consortium were: the Federal Writers’ Project (FWP), the Historical Records Survey (HRS), the Federal Theatre Project (FTP), the Federal Music Project (FMP), and the Federal Art Project (FAP). The creation of these dolls fell under the WPA Federal Art Project, with the goal of representing the various aspects of the culture, work and lives of the Southern black community of this time period.

The female doll depicts a black mammy out for a stroll with black umbrella in hand. This sweet gentlewoman wears a red and white polka dot kerchief on her head covering most of her gray hair and has embroidered facial features – characteristic of these WPA dolls. Also characteristic of this type of doll is a small square of asphalt shingle glued to the feet to serve as a stand. This doll has (not uncommonly) lost her asphalt shingle long ago, but a bit of the original shingle is still attached to the soles of both shoes. Clothing, with the exception of her neutral-striped knit-fabric sweater, is machine-sewn cotton with careful detailing right down to the red hankie poking out of her apron pocket. She also wears gold hoop earrings! Her body, which is well-stuffed to be anatomically correct, is black cotton fabric stuffed with cotton batting.

The white haired and bearded male country gentleman doll is similarly attired in machine-sewn cotton britches with a patch at the knee and suspenders along with a tan cotton striped shirt and red kerchief around his neck. His hat is constructed of cranberry-colored felt. Under his right arm, he holds a nicely crafted chicken that has sustained a tiny bit of fabric loss to its face. His left arm once held a wooden walking stick which is long gone, but alternatively, he now uses his free hand to hold the arm of his lovely lady! His asphalt shingle is also missing with remnants evident of it present on the soles of his shoes.

Two very special dolls that represent a snapshot of history, capturing the lives of poor southern black folk of the Depression era.

The dolls are priced at $245.00 each. AS these two dolls were originally purchased out of a lovely and quite comprehensive doll collection as a PAIR, if desired, they may also be purchased as a PAIR at a very special discounted price of $395.

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1900 item #1065624 (stock #B270)
Stonegate Antiques
$495.00
Those who are ardent collectors of the famed Florence Upton creation - the Golliwogg - recognize this 19th century, first edition, children's book as an extraordinarily RARE find indeed, very seldom available for purchase in today's market!

"The Golliwogg at the Sea-Side", published in 1898 by Longmans, Green & Co, London & New York, was illustrated by Florence K. Upton, with story written by her mother, Bertha. This book was the 3rd Golliwogg adventure in a series of thirteen Golliwogg adventures by Upton, with the last published in 1909-- all of which are incredibly difficult to find today.

This hard cover book, measuring 8.75 inches high x 11.5 inches long, is a total of 63 pages in length. The book is lavishly illustrated with 32 full-color illustrations and tells the story of Golly's adventures at the sea shore. Golly and his friends, suffering from boredom, go off to the seashore to try their hand at sunbathing, swimming in the ocean, crab fishing, boating—all with considerable catastrophe—until finally trying a hoped-for-peaceful hayride through the countryside—all for naught!!

The Golliwog, itself, was based on a Black minstrel doll that Florence Kate Upton, born in 1873 of English parents, had played with as a small child in New York. Upton's Golliwog character was first introduced to the world in her 1895 book entitled The Adventures of Two Dutch Dolls. Like the rag doll that inspired it, the Golliwog in her book was a less-than-handsome creature with very dark, jet black skin, large white-rimmed eyes, red clown lips, and wild, frizzy hair. Golliwogs are typically male and are generally dressed in a jacket, trousers, bow tie, and stand-up collar in a combination of red, white, blue, black, and occasionally yellow colors.

The book is in very fine but not perfect condition-- not surprising given the book's 113 years of age! Wear to hard-board-cover edges and corners. Binding remains strong and tight with center-taping coming a bit lose on one side, but not effecting integrity. A couple of the pages have 1/2inch tears at base, likely the result of simply turning the pages. Book is complete, with no missing pages.

Truly a fabulous find! Only the 2nd time I have EVER had the pleasure of offering one of these wonderfully-rare, 1st edition, Upton, children's book in my 26 years of dealing in Black Memorabilia!!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1920 item #854536 (stock #BA387)
Stonegate Antiques
$35.00
Offered are four different, circa 1900-1910, Jim Crow era, stereoview cards, priced at $35.00 each or all four cards for $120.00. All are in fine condition, and all but "Waitin Fo De End Man" have a detailed, historical description on the reverse side.

Featured are "Hoeing Rice, South Carolina", "Old Slave Market At St. Augustine, Florida", "Waitin Fo De End Man" (7 Boys Sitting on a Mule), and "Native Cane Grinders in Sunny Florida".

As each is priced separately (see photos for pricing), please email us stating which item you wish to purchase so that we can customize your order form.

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Pre 1930 item #1150364 (stock #BA825)
Stonegate Antiques
$145.00
Measuring 2 1/8 inches in diameter x 3/8 of an inch high, this rarely-found, circa 1910, dexterity game depicts a smiling Top-Hatted Dandy! The puzzle is quite colorful and is very visually appealing! The puzzle contains the 3 tiny metal balls along with one white ball of unknown material, that, with the proper manual dexterity, are to be placed in the Dandy’s eyes and as buttons on his shirt!

Constructed of tin with a cardboard lithographed image and a glass cover, this game has a mirrored back. The puzzle is in all-original condition with the Dandy graphic remaining free of scratches and abrasions, and design typical of turn-of-the-century puzzles. The mirrored back shows evidence of 2 tiny areas of subtle, minor chipping along the perimeter edge, and the glass front has a small, very shallow surface chip at the base of the Dandy's shirt and an even tinier one to the left of the top hat. Unless one applies hard pressure to the surface of this glass, I cannot ever imagine this front glass breaking or shattering. (Please disregard any light or shiny spots in photos which are due to flash reflection off of the glass.)

A detailed image and a delightful piece of very early Black Memorabilia!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1920 item #807580 (stock #BA720)
Stonegate Antiques
$275.00
Offered is this extremely RARE 1920's, cardboard, D.L. Clark Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 120 count, BLACK JACK Caramel "PENNY CANDY" BOX which features a singing Black Dandy strumming a banjo.

Cardboard candy boxes with black themes remain EXTREMELY RARE finds in today's market!!!

The piece is in very fine condition with expected edge and corner wear. The top left seam of the cover has split but otherwise, the box remains intact with no missing pieces.

D. L. Clark Company History:

David L. Clark (1864-1939) was born in Ireland and came to America when he was eight years old. He entered the candy business working for a small manufacturer in New York. After three years as a salesman, he bought a wagon, horses and merchandise, and went into business for himself.

The D. L. Clark Company was founded in 1886 when Clark started manufacturing candy in two back rooms of a small house in Pittsburgh's North Side. He began selling his candy in the streets of Pittsburgh. During his lifetime, his company became a leading candy manufacturer.

By 1920, the D. L. Clark Company was making about 150 different types of candy, including several five-cent bars, specialty items and bulk candy. Clark was also manufacturing chewing gum in a building across the street from his candy factory. In 1921, they incorporated Clark Brothers Chewing Gum Company as a separate business.

By 1931, the candy bar business was so expansive that Clark decided to sell the gum company, and it was renamed the Clark Gum Company.

The D. L. Clark Company remained in the hands of the Clark family until it was sold in 1955 to the Beatrice Food Company who operated the company until 1983 when in turn, it was sold to the Pittsburgh Food and Beverage Company. In 1995, the Pittsburgh Food and Beverage was thrown into bankruptcy. The company was shut down for several months and its assets divested. Restructured as Clark Bar America, the company operated until May of 1999, when it was purchased by New England Confectionery Company (NECCO), the oldest candy manufacturer in the United States.

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1900 item #1209364 (stock #BA861AB)
Stonegate Antiques
$225.00
Offered are two, highly-collectible, circa 1860-70's, earthenware, pictorial plates featuring two scenes from the enormously popular, 1852, novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Each plate is priced separately at $225.00 each or both plates for $365.00.

One plate depicts the sale of Uncle Tom while the other plate depicts the death of little Eva. The text on each plate is in German: "Evas Todt" or in English, "The Death of Eva", and "Slavel Tom Von LeGree Gekauft" or in English, "The Slave Tom Purchased by (Simon} LeGree".

Produced for use by children as subtle educational tools, the plates measure 7 5/8 inches in diameter and are decorated with black transfer, printed, Uncle Tom vignettes.

The condition of both plates is quite superb with subtle crazing lightly evident on the backs of plates only. Also on the backs of each plate are tiny, factory-flaw imperfections where glazing failed to bind to the earthenware (represented in close-up photo). The "Sale of Uncle Tom" plate has three such imperfections on its back side along with a tiny area of bleeding of transfer color under the glaze (see close-up photo). The "Death of Eva" plate displays more evident crazing on the back as compared to the "Sale of Tom" plate along with three factory-flaw imperfections, as described above. The "Eva" plate also appears to have three, extremely fine, light, scratch lines running across the front of the plate that are most readily noticeable only in close-up photos; when one runs a finger along the lines, the imperfections are so fine that they cannot be felt and certainly represent no threat to structural integrity.

The plates were produced by the Schramberg Pottery of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, founded in 1820 by stoneware expert, Isidor Faist. The plate featuring the sale of Uncle Tom is impressed "Schramberg" while the other plate has no marking. It is evident, however, that both plates were manufactured by the Schramberg factory.

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1940 item #1369646 (stock #BA929)
Stonegate Antiques
$395.00
In the mid-1800's, an unknown artist painted the face of a young Black boy in warm, soft colors, and unbeknown to the artist, forever immortalized the young boy's image! Since that time a variety of items were been produced in the image of the "Young Black boy with the Torn Hat" or "Johnny Griffin".

This piece is very much reminiscent of Johnny Griffin items with the exception of the intact, broad-rimmed hat on this piece versus the torn rim typically seen on all "named" Johnny Griffin pieces.

This circa 1920-30's novelty piece is constructed in solid brass, is hefty in weight, and was likely used as an ash tray given its tobacco leaf design/theme. The "Johnny Griffin-like" head of the young African-American boy that serves as the centerpiece of this wonderful piece, was molded separately and screwed into place. The screw is concealed under an original brass cap, done purely for esthetics.

The piece is in all original condition with the delightful, warm, rich, golden patina of old brass- not a reproduction- no replaced parts- and measures 7 inches long x 4 1/2 inches wide. It does not retain any markings, and country of origin is unknown, although likely of European origin.

A very seldom found Tobacciana piece of Black Memorabilia, that indeed pairs well with Johnny Griffin items!

To view all of the Johnny Griffin items currently available for sale, simply type “Johnny Griffin” into the search box on our web home page.

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1930 item #1450996 (stock #B304)
Stonegate Antiques
$95.00
Published in 1926 by the Whitman Publishing Company of Racine, Wisconsin, this very seldom-found, little softcover book measuring just 4x5 inches, offers a very unique continuation of the original Little Black Sambo story!

Entitled A New Story of Little Black Sambo, this tale picks up the story with Little Sambo's mother, Black Mumbo, exclaiming that Sambo, after almost losing his best Sunday clothes to the tigers, would- from now on- only be allowed to wear his every day clothes. Now very unhappily dressed in only a grass skirt, a pouting and naughty Sambo decides to run off into the jungle once again without permission, and climbs a tree to gather coconuts. A tiger soon arrives threatening to eat Little Black Sambo, trapping him up in the tree for the entire day! Eventually, Tusker the Elephant arrives, successfully chasing off the tiger and saving Sambo. Sambo then returns home, where an angry Black Mumbo spanks him with a hairbrush for running off, despite the gift of coconuts Sambo hoped would appease his mother. The conclusion of the tale then moves forward one month later when the family goes to visit Little Black Sambo’s cousins, the Bimboes, who admire his fine Sunday best clothing that he was finally allowed to wear again!

Although no author is attributed, it is thought by some that the tale was co-authored by the book's two illustrators, Clara Bell Thurston, who rendered all of the lovely colored drawings and Earnest Vetsch, who rendered the "black and white" illustrations (which, actually, are done in navy blue ink) as well as the fancy hand-lettering of the text which further embellishes the book.

With 36 unnumbered pages which alternate between the superbly rendered color and navy blue line illustrations, this unique little book is in quite good condition. No fading of color, no rips, creases or missing pages. Binding is tight with all three original staples present. Cover edges are subtly worn, and age-related, light soiling is present. Tusker the elephant has been lightly colored with colored pencil in some places as is Sambo's grass hut, and evidence of penciled-in page numbers, long since erased, is noted. (Any blurring in photos is due to camera technique and does not reflect book condition.)

This rarely found continuation of the original Little Black Sambo story is a must have addition for the collector of Little Black Sambo books!

To see all of the Little Black Sambo items currently available for sale, simply type “Sambo” into the search box on our website homepage.

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1970 item #272518 (stock #BA393)
Stonegate Antiques
$65.00
Measuring 23 inches long x 4 inches wide, this circa 1960's, sweet, little black man, sewing caddy is constructed primarily of felt with metal and plastic decorative detailing.

Quite multi-purpose in nature, his legs hold spools of thread, and under his red vest, he hides a pincushion (his chest) along with 2 felt strips for needle and pin storage (his arms)! Four decorative plastic rings can be used to hold safety pins! He also sports a ring on the top of his hat to allow one to hang him on the wall.

Condition is quite fine! No rips, stains or tears with just some subtle fading to his green felt bowtie and black face and legs--all age-related. He has two, insignificant moth holes on the BACK of his red vest.

Handy to keep by the sewing machine, but also just a delightful, vintage, Black Memorabilia whimsy to decorate your sewing room!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1960 item #336030 (stock #BA282)
Stonegate Antiques
$125.00
Measuring approximately 4 1/2 inches in length, this wonderful pair of hard plastic African Native dolls are dressed in highly detailed and decorated costumes. Circa 1940s, these all-original dolls with hand-painted faces are in very fine condition and make a striking pair when displayed!

The female is clothed in a green felt dress and head piece that are decorated with tiny blue and white beads. She wears double strand white beaded bracelets and anklets and also wears a double stranded white beaded necklace with a large red bead center. Underneath her dress in back a tiny head peeks out- a little plastic baby that she is carrying!

The male is clothed in a brown and red polka dotted skirt with 2 fur pouches, and a fur headdress. He is swathed in longer strings of beads that encircle his waist and also run diagonally across his chest. He, too, wears a double stranded beaded anklet and necklace. Larger Red beads hang from the sides of his dress as well as from the 2nd fur pouch that hangs behind him.

The arms and legs are movable at hip and shoulder joints of each doll. The Male has the following in raised lettering on his back: P. M. and J. H. B. The remainder of the marking is obscured by beading and clothing. No other markings are visible.

A visually striking pair!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1940 item #1405035 (stock #BA947)
Stonegate Antiques
$275.00
Offered is an extraordinarily rare, 1930's, Googly-Eyed Tea Pot made in Japan. A Google search on this item yields NO other vintage, 1930s Japan, Mammy, Googly-eyed Teapots available, further attesting to this piece's rarity!

This particular piece is in very fine condition, with cold-paint flaking on the spout and lid edge decoration noted as this piece's only readily-visualized flaws. (Cold paint refers to paint applied AFTER a piece has been painted, glazed, and fired in a kiln. Because this after-paint is not glazed and fired, it is easily subjected to flaking and disintegration.)

The teapot remains in fabulous, all-original condition with its twisted-wire, original, bail handle intact and in fine condition. The tea pot measures 5.5 inches wide from the edge of its spout and across the body to the opposite side. With its handle upright, the pot measures 7.75 inches tall. The teapot with lid, absent the handle, measures 5.25 inches tall. It is 5.75 inches wide.

As noted previously, the teapot spout presents flaking of its green paint, with two tiny flea bites present on the tip of the spout detected only via touch versus the eye. The pot has no chips, cracks, repairs or repaint. There are very teeny surface rubs on the left cheek, but these are paint flaws which occurred prior to glaze application and firing. There are also two teeny "dots"-- one on the forehead and one just to the inside corner of the right eye that are also flaws created either right before or during firing.

This fabulously RARE piece displays just wonderfully and would be a prized asset in the collection of any advanced collector! And its diminutive size makes it easy for one to display in one's collection!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1930 item #479340 (stock #BA563)
Stonegate Antiques
$495.00
C1920s Cast Iron Hubley Black Mammy Soap Dish In fine form with very minimal paint loss as seen in photos, this wonderful circa 1920's, cast iron, Hubley BLACK MAMMY SOAP DISH is in all-original condition- no repaint!

Measuring 5 1/8 inches tall with soap dish attached, Mammy's colors- her deep red dress, mustard yellow shawl, and yellow and red polka dot head scarf- remain vibrant and brilliant with a wonderful old patina! Her face features large, dark eyes and a smiling, red mouth.

The soap dish is designed to be removed, and its anchoring cast iron peg fits into a hole atop Mammy's head. The exterior of the soap dish is cast to resemble a wicker laundry basket and is painted a slightly lighter-toned, mustard yellow.

A delightful, vintage piece of early Black Americana in premium condition!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1940 item #1401924 (stock #BA942)
Stonegate Antiques
$95.00
Measuring approximately 10.5 inches tall, these sweet, hand-made, circa 1930's, Great Depression era, Mammy and Pappy dolls feature dried apples as heads! Common household items such as chicken or turkey breast bones, dried corn cobs, old rubber baby bottle nipples, wooden clothespins and dried fruit were frequently employed to make play-dolls when money was tight and store-bought toys were beyond reach!

These two folk art pieces came straight from the 93 year old great grandma who played with them as a child!

While the heads were constructed from dried apples painted black, the bodies were cut from various pieces of sponge which were then hand-sewn together. Hands were cut from pink--- and not brown or black felt--very interesting---while the teeth were formed from tiny white beads, and the white fuzzy hair fashioned from nothing more than small, cotton batting pieces. Eyes are glued-on googly eyes.

The homemade clothing is nicely constructed via a combination of hand and machine sewing. Mammy's green, teal and rust flowered dress is embellished with a bit of lace at the sleeves, and she also wears a fancy, white eyelet petticoat and a soft pink crocheted shawl. She is barefoot. Pappy's light blue shirt features 3 button detailing, and he wears denim pants and black felt shoes and hat with a red felt vest.

Condition is quite fine with no observable issues! No odors, rips, stains or missing parts. A very sweet pair!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 1940 item #365260 (stock #BA450)
Stonegate Antiques
$80.00
Measuring 8 3/4 inches long x 6 ½ inches wide, this very charming, circa 1920-1930’s key or pot holder hanger is entirely hand-made- and is a fabulous example of early American Folk Art!

Constructed of hand-cut, ¼ inch wide, black painted wood, this darling little black girl has hand-painted eyes and smiling lips, and is dressed in a hand and machine stitched, cloth-stuffed, one piece, black, tan and green dress! She has a hole in each ear, a metal hanging loop atop her head and one metal hook on each shoe for hanging keys or potholders!

She is in fine condition given her 70+ years of age and has great “patina”. Some minor paint loss, a few teeny holes in her outfit, but very visually appealing Black Americana Folk Art, none the less!

All Items : Popular Collectibles : Memorabilia : Black Americana : Pre 2000 item #451878 (stock #BA560)
Stonegate Antiques
$75.00
Offered is an authentic signed baseball from former Negro League player CLIFFORD LAYTON. The ball was signed for me at an autograph show and is dated 4-15-05.

Mr. Layton was a skilled pitcher with a strong bat who had a four-year career in the Negro Leagues, playing for the Indianapolis Clowns, the New York Black Yankees and the Raleigh Tigers. One of his teammates was a promising infielder by the name of Hank Aaron, who signed with the Boston Braves in 1952, and eventually became a Hall of Famer. Layton received an invitation in 1951 to try out for the Brooklyn Dodgers, but by then his shoulder was troubling him so he declined, hoping it would heal and another opportunity would present, which unfortunately never came. As of 2016, Mr. Layton, at the age of 87, was enjoying retirement as an associate pastor in a North Carolina ministry.

A brief history of the Negro League:

African-Americans first began to play baseball in the late 1800s on military teams, college teams, and company teams, eventually finding their way to the established professional baseball teams of white players. However, racism and “Jim Crow” laws would force African-Americans from these teams by 1900, with black players left to form their own teams.

In 1920, an organized league structure was formed under the guidance of Andrew “Rube” Foster, a former player, manager, and owner for the Chicago American Giants. In a meeting held at the Paseo YMCA in Kansas City, Mo., Foster and several other Midwestern team owners joined to form the Negro National League. Soon, rival leagues formed in Eastern and Southern states, which brought black baseball to major urban centers and to rural countrysides in the U.S., Canada, and Latin America. The Leagues maintained a high level of professional skill and inspired economic development in many black communities.

In 1945, when Major League Baseball’s Brooklyn Dodgers recruited Jackie Robinson from the Kansas City Monarchs, Robinson became the first African-American in the modern era to play on a Major League roster. While this historic event was a key moment in baseball and civil rights history, it marked the decline of the Negro Leagues. The best black players began to be recruited for the Major Leagues with their black fans following them, and the last Negro Leagues teams folded in the early 1960s.